Glossar

A B C E G I L M N O P R S T

 

adjuvant
Adjuvant therapy is an oncological term for cancer treatment that is used after the complete surgical removal of all recognisable tumour parts in order to fight possible, not yet visible tumour metastases (micrometastases) and thereby improve the long-term health outcome.

 

Brachytherapy
A radiation source that is positioned within or very close to the area of the body which is to be treated.

 

Chemotherapy
The treatment of cancer using medication.

 

computed tomography
A special x-ray procedure that produces cross-section images of a defined area of the body.

 

Curativ
Curative treatments that assist healing.

 

CT
Abbreviation for computed tomography. A special x-ray procedure that produces cross-section images of a defined area of the body.

 

Excision
Surgical removal of tissue.

 

Extracranial
Outside the cranium/skull.

 

Gy
Gray, abbreviated to Gy: physical unit. An energy dose caused by ionising radiation, in other words the amount of energy absorbed per unit of matter.

 

IMRT
The radiation dose/radiation intensity can be modulated within the field (area to be radiated). It allows for very complexly formed target volumes and is therefore suitable for tumours in close proximity to sensitive risk organs.

 

Intensity modulated radiotherapy
The radiation dose/radiation intensity can be modulated within the field (area to be radiated). It allows for very complexly formed target volumes and is therefore suitable for tumours in close proximity to sensitive risk organs.

 

IntraBeam
The IntraBeam is a device for intraoperative treatment. The radiation takes place during surgery; it is applied to the tumour bed using a spherical applicator directly after the tumour has been removed.

 

Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT)
The radiation takes place during surgery; it is applied to the tumour bed using a spherical applicator directly after the tumour has been removed.

 

Ionising radiation
Radiation with sufficient energy to separate electrons from an atom or molecule. Sources of radiation include, for example: cosmic radiation, radiation from the sun, radioactive material, nuclear reactions in reactors, x-ray tubes.

 

IORT
(intraoperative radiation therapy)
See intraoperative radiation therapy.

 

Local recurrence
New tumour in the same area as the previous tumour.

 

Malignoma
Malignant tumour.

 

Metastase
Infiltration of an initial tumour in tissue further away, in a different area/organ of the body.

 

MTRA
(medical technical radiology assistant)
Specialist in medical technical radiology.

 

Neoadjuvant
Neoadjuvant treatment (chemo- or radiotherapy) takes place before surgery with the aim of reducing the size of the tumour in order to make it operable – or more easily operable.

 

Neurocranium
The human skull.

 

Oncologist
A cancer specialist.

 

Oncology
The scientific study of cancer.

 

Palliative
(e.g. palliative care) Treatment designed to improve a person’s quality of life.

 

Photon
The quantum of light; a weightless particle that carries the electromagnetic force.

 

Planning CT
Computed tomography is used to create a three-dimensional model of the region to be treated on the planning computer, which provides the basis for the radiation plan.

 

Post-operative
Following surgery.

 

Pre-operative
Before surgery.

 

Radiotherapy
Specialist medical field that involves the use of ionised radiation on humans to heal, delay or alleviate illnesses.

 

Radiation therapy
Specialist medical field that involves the use of ionised radiation on humans to heal, delay or alleviate illnesses.

 

Recurrence
Relapse of an illness (in oncology, a new tumour).

 

Respiratory gating
The synchronisation of radiotherapy with the patient’s breathing rhythm.

 

Stereotactic radiotherapy
A very high dose of radiation concentrated on a very small area. It is administered using special radiation equipment such as a gamma-knife (source of cobalt), the CyberKnife, or specially adapted linear accelerators.

 

Stereotaxis (stereotactic radiotherapy)
A very high dose of radiation concentrated on a very small area. It is administered using special radiation equipment such as a gamma-knife (source of cobalt), the CyberKnife, or specially adapted linear accelerators.

 

Target volume
The area of the body to be radiated.

 

Teletherapy
External medical use of ionised radiation.

 

Toxic therapy
Therapy designed to destroy cellular tissue.

 

Tumour
med.: Any kind of increase of tissue volume.

 

Tumour cells
Single cells in a tumour.

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