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Internal medicine includes the treatment of illnesses of the internal organs, as well as illnesses which affect the entire organ system. In internal medicine, the central key to diagnosis and treatment is the interdisciplinary networking of doctors. This is particularly important for the success of treatments for cancers. The most effective therapy strategy is developed and planned for each individual patient by the interdisciplinary oncology board, which consists of specialists in oncology, surgery, radiology and nuclear medicine.
Klinik Im Park
T +41 44 209 21 11
F +41 44 209 20 11
T +41 44 209 20 60
F +41 44 209 20 61
Klinik Im Park
Nephrologie T +41 44 209 25 30
Urologie T +41 44 480 07 60
Angiology is concerned with the body's complex system of blood vessels, particularly the arteries and veins.
The angiologist knows about the structure and characteristics of the various blood vessels in the body. He is a specialist in all the changes that can occur in these vessels. His area of expertise includes, therefore, disorders such as the narrowing or closure, dilation and inflammation of the vessels. In order to be able to determine exactly how a vessel has changed, he is able to carry out a variety of examinations, e.g. a Doppler ultrasound test, oscillography (measuring the fluctuations in volume of the extremities) or even a test run on a jogging machine.
The angiologist knows about the various ways of treating vessels that have undergone change. For example, he will remove varicose veins using a method known as 'stripping', deal with spider veins or remove blockages in blood vessels by means of a surgical intervention. In such cases he works with a vascular surgeon, a specialist in blood vessel surgery.
Cardiology is the science and study of the heart, its functions and all the disorders that can affect this organ and impair its normal function. The cardiologist's area of expertise encompasses conditions such as a heart attack, heart failure and arrhythmia (heart rhythm disturbance).
To find out how well the heart is working the cardiologist uses specialised methods of testing, such as use of the electrocardiograph (the ECG measures the heart's electrical impulses) or a chest X-ray.
The cardiologist works closely with the thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon. Under certain circumstances he can carry out specific types of operation, such as implanting a heart pacemaker.
After a patient's illness or operation, the cardiologist suggests courses of action to help restore him back to health. This can include a stay in a special rehabilitation clinic, a specially tailored keep-fit programme, or taking the appropriate medicines.
Dermatology is concerned with all the disorders of the outer skin and inner mucous membranes. Venereology is concerned with disorders that can be transmitted through sexual contact.
The specialist in these branches of medicine is able to recognise skin and sexually transmitted diseases though changes in the skin or mucous membranes. He uses probes to conduct a variety of tests so as to arrive at a precise diagnosis. Common skin disorders include dermatitis (inflammation), psoriasis (flaking) and fungal infections. He also deals with skin allergies and is familiar with certain disorders of the blood vessels, such as varicose veins.
Dermatology can make use of a variety of methods to treat skin and sexually transmitted diseases. These can either be drug-based, or can involve techniques such as laser therapy, cryotherapy (freezing), dermal abrasion (scraping damaged skin) or surgical interventions, e.g. removing skin tumours.
Endocrinology / diabetology is concerned with the hormones that are manufactured in the body by special glands and distributed by the blood. Hormones, of which there are more than thirty, play an important role in the management of many of the body's processes. Insulin, for instance, manufactured by the pancreas, controls the blood sugar level. Knowledge about insulin, blood sugar level and diabetes comes under diabetology.
The endocrinologist / diabetologist knows about the various functions of the hormones in the body. He knows what symptoms emerge when too few or too many hormones accumulate. He conducts a variety of tests to diagnose the individual disorders. Depending on their outcome he selects the right drug for treatment and advises the patient as to how he can help alleviate his condition, e.g. by changing his eating habits or taking more exercise.
The special medical branch of the gastroenterologist is concerned with the oesophagus (gullet), stomach and intestines, as well as the liver with the gallbladder and the pancreas.
What is particularly important for this specialist is that he should have in-depth knowledge of a variety of tests that are conducted on these organs. The gullet, stomach and intestines can, for instance, be investigated using endoscopy. This is where a tube – at the end of which is a tiny camera – is inserted into the stomach via, say, the gullet. The images are shown on a monitor screen. The doctor analyses these and makes the appropriate diagnosis. The same applies to pictures of the liver, which can be made using ultrasound.
The gastroenterologist chooses medicines to treat disorders, or he opts for surgery. In surgical interventions he works closely with a visceral surgeon. He also, for instance, advises the patient on his eating habits.
Haematology is the study of blood and its components. The haematologist specialises in how and why and where these components are manufactured in the body and what their normal functions are. He also knows what processes are involved in the clotting of blood.
The haematologist is trained to diagnose and treat disorders of the blood by running the appropriate laboratory tests. Amongst other things he knows how to prevent blood clots from forming by, for example, prescribing medicines that thin the patient's blood.
Transfusions and congenital disorders of the blood, such as haemophilia, also come under his area of expertise. To treat haemophilia he can arrange for, and supervise, substitution therapy. This method of treatment involves regularly injecting the patient with the factors that are missing from his blood.
The haematologist is of importance when it comes to the diagnosis and treatment of leukaemia (cancer of the blood). He often works with the oncologist or is himself trained in oncology.
Infectology is the science and study of conditions that are caused by an invasion of the human body by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi that then multiply and cause damage to the organism.
The infectologist knows the various ways a human can pick up infectious diseases, and the tests that are needed to diagnose them. The patient is then prescribed the medicine that is appropriate to treat the viral, bacterial, parasitical or fungal infection.
The infectologist plays an important part in combating serious viral diseases such as AIDS or hepatitis. He selects the correct drug or combination of drugs for these patients, constantly monitors the outcome of the therapy and adjusts it as and when necessary.
The infectologist also knows how infections are disseminated in the environment. He adopts the procedures that are needed to prevent this from happening, such as immunisations or the disinfection of rooms and equipment.
Oncology is the study of a variety of tumours, namely the various cancers that can affect a human being. The word 'cancer' covers approximately 150 variations of one disease, the characteristic of which is the uncontrolled division of cells of an organ or tissue.
Cancers of the breast, lung, intestine and prostate gland must be the best-known and most common. For a long time now, breast cancer has been the most common cancer to affect women, whilst men suffer most from lung cancer. The symptoms of cancer, as well as the chances of recovery from it, vary widely and depend on the structure, size and location of the tumour.
If cancer is suspected, the oncologist will initiate a series of tests. The results of these tests determine the further course of action. The oncologist will decide, for example, which drug should best be used in chemotherapy, or whether it might be better to remove a tumour surgically. In some cases, the oncologist will arrange for radiotherapy, where he will work closely with the radio-oncologist/radiotherapist, a specialist in radiotherapy.
He also treats the symptoms that accompany cancer, such as pain. He monitors the patient's recovery and carries out further tests.
A nephrologist is a specialist in the medical problems of the kidneys.
He is an expert in the different causes of kidney disorders, their consequences and forms of treatment. He can, for example, arrange for and supervise dialysis. This treatment has to be carried out regularly if the kidneys are unable to cleanse the blood of toxins on their own.
The nephrologist also advises patients on points to watch out for in their daily lives, such as the dietary requirements needed to alleviate their illness.
Neurology is the study of the nervous system, encompassing brain, spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system, as well as the musculature of the human body.
The neurologist knows about all the deformities and disorders of the nervous system and musculature, and what can go wrong with them. This includes migraine, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease as well as chronic sleep disorders and difficulties with movement.
The neurologist has received special training in the various methods of examination used to diagnose the above conditions. He can, for example, measure electrical activity in the brain or extract and examine fluids from the spine.
A neurologist treats his patients with medication. If an operation is needed, the patient will be transferred to the neurosurgeon.
Illnesses or accidents can cause problems with the normal functioning of the body and can even lead to disability. Such cases call for the expertise of the specialist in physical medicine and rehabilitation.
He creates a tailor-made plan for the treatment of each patient. He is able to arrange for movement therapy, heat and cold therapy, massages, etc. with the aim of completely restoring – rehabilitating – the functions of the body, or at least reducing the constraints placed on it.
The expertise of the specialist in physical medicine comes into its own following implantations of joint prosthetics, after severe fractures, and for patients with chronic muscle and joint conditions or paralysis.
Respiratory medicine specialises in the airways, comprising the structure and function of the lungs and the organs through which air passes, such as the bronchi and the trachea.
The specialist in respiratory medicine can conduct many specialised forms of examination, using such optical instruments as endoscopes in the airways to locate the cause of breathing difficulties or to take tissue samples. He can check how the lungs are functioning and, if needed, arranges for X-rays to be taken of them.
An important aspect of his work is the treatment of asthma with drugs. He prescribes the appropriate medication and explains to the patient how to use it correctly. He will also teach asthmatics how to reduce the risk of an attack.
If lung conditions require surgery, the specialist in respiratory medicine will work together with the thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon. Constrictions caused by tumours can nowadays be removed using laser surgery, and it is also possible to insert prosthetics ('stents') into the airways in order to keep them open.
During the surgical treatment of lung disorders the specialist in respiratory medicine often works alongside an allergist.
Our psyches as well as our bodies can become ill, too. The word 'psyche' refers to the soul with its conscious and subconscious aspects.
The psychiatrist recognises the signs of various mental dysfunctions such as depression, schizophrenia or panic attacks. He also knows which physical illnesses can give rise to psychological distress. In particular, psychological problems can often be caused by chronic illnesses that are accompanied by severe pain or that considerably reduce the quality of life. There is a variety of different drugs available to treat psychological illness.
Psychotherapy, a specialised form of treatment, uses a variety of interpersonal 'talking' techniques, such as psychoanalysis, person-centred therapy (as developed by Rogers), or Gestalt therapy. These different forms of therapy can help alleviate the patients’ problems. A combination of approaches is often used.
Rheumatology is the branch of medicine that deals with disorders and dysfunctions of the musculoskeletal system, responsible for a human being's movements. In particular, it covers inflammations of the bones, joints and musculature, but also includes inner organs and the nervous system.
The rheumatologist is an expert in disorders such as arthritis, arthrosis and osteoporosis. He is mainly concerned with diagnosing and treating these conditions. He knows how to perform the major forms of examination, such as ultrasound, or extracting fluid from the joints. As many rheumatic conditions are very painful, he also knows how pain has to be combated.
The rheumatologist is able to call upon a range of drugs to treat these conditions. He is also familiar with the various forms of therapy used by the specialist in physical medicine and rehabilitation.
Klinik Im Park
T +41 44 209 21 11
F +41 44 209 20 11