Pregnancy is accompanied by many changes. One such change is your nutrition. You should ensure that you eat a healthy variety of foods in order to obtain all the nutrients your body needs.
You should drink at least one and a half to two litres of fluid each day, eat vegetables, salad and fruit (better raw) on a daily basis, and take care that your diet includes the vitamins and minerals you need. Each meal should be accompanied by starchy foods, such as rice, pasta, bread or potatoes, but you should avoid unsaturated fats and white sugar. It is better to eat five smaller meals a day instead of three larger ones.
It is recommended to avoid the following foods during pregnancy:
Required energy intake
Although the required energy intake does increase during pregnancy, it is often overestimated. During the first three months, required energy intake is only moderately higher, and increases by some 200-300 calories per day for the remainder of the pregnancy. This can be fulfilled, for example, by eating one serving of natural yoghurt, one piece of fruit and 2 tablespoons of flakes.
Protein is an essential building block for cells, muscles and organs. During pregnancy, the required protein intake increases by approximately 10 grams per day (found, for example, in 30 grams of hard cheese). Meat, fish, poultry, milk, dairy products, eggs, legumes and tofu are all excellent sources of protein.
The recommended daily fat intake is between 60 and 80 grams, the lion’s share of which should be made up of vegetable fats and oils. Rapeseed oil and olive oil are highly recommended. You should be careful of hidden fats in sausages, sauces, pastries, fried foods, etc.
Although the requirement for carbohydrates increases only moderately during pregnancy, carbohydrates should account for some 50 % to 55 % of overall energy intake. Given the substantially higher vitamin and mineral requirement during pregnancy, whole-grain products are preferable. These are also an important source of indigestible fibre.
Vitamins and minerals
The requirement for certain vitamins and minerals increases during pregnancy. You should ensure that your diet includes sufficient quantities of folic acid, calcium, magnesium and iron.
By taking special multivitamin tablets (primarily containing folic acid) during pregnancy, you can reduce the risk of physical malformations in your unborn child (e.g. neural tract malformations, heart defects, cleft palate) by up to one half. In addition, multivitamins can reduce the risk of miscarriage, premature birth and anoxia.