A myoma (uterine myoma) is a benign tumour in the muscle tissue of the uterus. Depending on its size, a myoma can cause different symptoms. The type of treatment depends on the symptoms, the size and the location of the myoma as well as the age of women affected.
Myomas are benign muscle-like tumours in the uterus. They are also known as uterine tumours in medical terms. The growth of a myoma is triggered by the sex hormone oestrogen. Every fifth woman is affected by this. Myomas do not cause any symptoms in the majority of those affected. They usually occur between the ages of 35 and 50 years old.
If a myoma reaches a particular size, it can cause symptoms such as increased menstrual bleeding, pain, constipation or an increased urge to urinate. An iron deficiency can develop as a result of the increased menstrual bleeding. If the myoma is situated in the cervix, it can also increase the risk of miscarriage or cause complications during birth.
Myomas on the uterus are often discovered by chance during a gynaecological check-up as they often do not cause any symptoms. An ultrasound examination is carried out to determine the exact location and the size of the myoma.
The treatment of the myoma depends on the symptoms, the number, size and location of the myoma(s) as well as the age of the women affected. In the case of younger women with myoma-related complaints, an effort is always made to retain the uterus during the treatment. Smaller myomas can be surgically removed or destroyed in a targeted manner with high-energy ultrasound waves. Myoma embolisation is another non-surgical treatment option. In the process, the small blood vessels which supply the myoma are closed using a catheter inserted through the pelvic arteries (embolised).
In the case of large myomas or several myoma nodes (uterus myomatosus) and extensive symptoms, the focus is on surgical removal of the uterus. In particular, if a woman does not want to have any more children. You can find out more about the surgical treatment options in the uterine surgery section.
Hormone therapy is considered to be an alternative to surgical treatment in women who are on the verge of menopause. It is administered in the form of antioestrogens and gestagens.