Gynaecology and obstetrics is a medical specialty that involves evaluating and treating predominantly female diseases of the sexual and reproductive organs and the urogenital system. Gynaecology also includes monitoring pregnancies, ante-natal care, delivering babies, preventing female diseases (cancer screening, mammograms), contraception, family planning, and counselling and treating women during the menopause.
In surgical gynaecology and obstetrics, specialists are qualified to carry out surgery on women suffering from diseases of the breasts, sexual organs and urinary system. They conduct caesarean sections to deliver babies, and also carry out abortions. Surgery is performed in cases of abnormal menstruation (endometriosis), tumours, benign ulcers (fibroids), organ and cellular alterations, malformations, urinary incontinence and so on. Specialists also carry out tubal ligation for women seeking to avoid pregnancy.