Certified practice laboratory specialists are authorised to independently carry out laboratory tests in their practices. Tests are carried out on bodily fluids, excretions and tissue. These include examinations of blood, urine, synovial fluid, effusions, cerebrospinal fluid, semen, stools and cells. Laboratory medicine is divided into the following fields of investigation:
- Clinical chemistry: glucose, electrolytes and enzymes, drugs and medicines.
- Endocrinology: hormones.
- Haematology: fixed blood components (blood cells) and the coagulation function.
- Immunology: healthy and pathological defence mechanisms (autoimmune reactions) in the body.
- Serology: examinations of the liquid components of the blood (serum) such as blood group incompatibility and antibody detection.
- Microbiology: identification of bacteria, viruses and fungi. Parasitology: identification of parasites (worms, fleas, insects).
- Molecular biology, genetic analysis: genetic testing and DNA analysis.