The specialisation in paediatric oncology-haematology is a postgraduate qualification for paediatricians. Those who acquire this postgraduate qualification are qualified to comprehensively care for and treat children and adolescents with cancer or blood diseases under their own responsibility. The cancers and blood diseases mentioned include illnesses such as leukaemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, brain tumours, bone tumours and blood disorders such as anaemia or haemophilia.

The diagnosis of these illnesses requires special knowledge and skills, such as performing a bone marrow aspiration or a lumbar puncture. The often complex treatment of these illnesses generally takes place within an interdisciplinary collaboration. The specialists in paediatric oncology-haematology provide and monitor treatments such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy (radiation), bone marrow and stem cell transplantation, and blood transfusions.

Alongside the specific diagnostic and therapeutic measures, providing psychological care and support to children and parents naturally also features among the tasks within paediatric oncology-haematology. If necessary, other specialists such as psychologists, psychiatrists or social services are brought in here to ensure optimum care.